Rocks & Minerals O-Z

The following article was sourced from a Wikipedia page at the following address: Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games see tile-based game. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made of ceramic, typically glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, cork, concrete and other composite materials, and stone. Tiling stone is typically marble, onyx, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts. Stoneware is harder and more durable than earthenware, and so more suitable for floors, but there is a slight difference between porcelain and ceramic tiles. Terracotta is traditionally used for roof tiles, but other manufactured materials including types of concrete may now be used.

Aegean civilizations

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Chinas with intersecting single lines are similar to those with sets of lines, though there are simply two or rarely three single lines that encircle the equator and intersect with one another.

Even today there are few archaeologists capable of appreciating the underlying geometry. Alexander Thom The Mysterious Ancient Spheres Four hundred and twenty geometric stone spheres have been found in the vicinity of Neolithic stone circles in Northern Scotland, with coming from Aberdeenshire alone. One was recently spotted by the author over 6, miles away that came from an important megalithic pyramid site in South America.

Geometric stone sphere found in Cumbria, England Most of the Scottish spheres are around 3 inches 7. Some show beautiful craftsmanship and symmetry, others show artistic mastery, while some look rough, badly made, or unfinished. However, some of the better-preserved examples have diameters within one millimeter of each another.

Most were all discovered within the vicinity of Neolithic monuments known as recumbent stone circles. The type of rock varies from easily carved sandstone and serpentine, to difficult, hard granite and quartzite. One of the most striking aspects of the spheres is the intricate geometry that appears to show the five Platonic Solids, a long time before Plato was born.

Victorian Children’s Toys and Games

Porcelain is a term used to refer to high-fired white-bodied clays. These clays are extremely pure and therefore can be subjected to very high firing temperatures, resulting in a dense, vitreous, white, and often translucent paste. Porcelain is totally resistant to water absorption, unlike lower-fired ceramics such as earthenwares and whitewares.

China marbles were probably introduced in the s, and perhaps even earlier in the century.

The ball , kite , and yo-yo are assumed to be the oldest objects specifically designed as toys.

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A Brief History of Marbles (Including All That Marble Slang)

Aegean civilizations, the Stone and Bronze Age civilizations that arose and flourished in the area of the Aegean Sea in the periods, respectively, about — bc and about — bc. Principal sites associated with Aegean civilizations. The area consists of Crete , the Cyclades and some other islands, and the Greek mainland, including the Peloponnese, central Greece, and Thessaly. The first high civilization on European soil, with stately palaces, fine craftsmanship, and writing, developed on the island of Crete.

Common colors are aqua, dark blue, amber, and green, though a few other colors have shown up.

Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi , a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is simply called ho naos “the temple”. The architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos “the hundred footer” in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, [22] and, in the 4th century and later, the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon; the 1st-century-AD writer Plutarch referred to the building as the Hekatompedos Parthenon.

Older Parthenon The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon c. This building replaced a hekatompedon meaning “hundred-footer” and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias “of the city”. Further physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of — This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered over.

This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the —90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple. One difficulty in dating the proto-Parthenon is that at the time of the excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed; the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information.

A Brief History of Marbles (Including All That Marble Slang)

For the genus of gastropod snail, see Septaria gastropod. A slice of a septarian nodule Septarian concretions or septarian nodules, are concretions containing angular cavities or cracks, called “septaria”. Although it has commonly been assumed that concretions grew incrementally from the inside outwards, the fact that radially oriented cracks taper towards the margins of septarian concretions is taken as evidence that in these cases the periphery was stiffer while the inside was softer, presumably due to a gradient in the amount of cement precipitated.

The process that created the septaria that characterize septarian concretions remains unclear. A number of mechanisms have been proposed, including the dehydration of clay-rich, gel-rich, or organic-rich cores; shrinkage of the concretion’s center; expansion of gases produced by the decay of organic matter; or brittle fracturing or shrinkage of the concretion interior by either earthquakes or compaction Pratt ; McBride et al.

Folks who follow my auctions know I am not one for hyperbole, but I can safely and confidently say that this is the rarest marble I have ever offered, possibly a truly unique example.

November 3, Getty Images If you’re the type of mibster that has knuckled down with a taw and shot for an aggie duck, then you already know quite a bit about mibs. If you’re among the many people who have no idea what any of that means, stick around as we explore the history of marbles. Rolling Through History Believe it or not, but no one really knows where marbles originated.

They’ve been found in the ashes of Pompeii and in the tombs of ancient Egyptians, and they were played with by Native American tribes, so it’s impossible to pin down a precise country of origin. The earliest examples were simply stones that had been polished smooth by a running river, but for centuries artisans made them by hand from clay, stone, or glass.

Mass production became possible in , when Sam Dyke of Akron, Ohio, created a wooden block with six grooves, each of which held a lump of clay. An operator would roll a wooden paddle over all the clay balls at once, with a back-and-forth and slightly lateral motion, creating six marbles. With around employees, Dyke’s factory was cranking out five train carloads, or about one million marbles, every day. Mass production made marbles much cheaper to make, allowing the price to drop from about one penny each to a bag of 30 marbles for the same price.

Other businessmen jumped on the bandwagon and Akron soon became the marble capital of late th century America. In , mass production of glass marbles began, thanks to a machine invented by Akron’s M. His machine consisted of a screw conveyor made up of two grooved cylinders spun next to each other. A “slug” of molten glass was placed between the cylinders on one end and it was gradually carried down to the opposite side, simultaneously cooled and shaped into a sphere by the rolling grooves.

The design worked so well, it has remained essentially unchanged and is still the most common way to make marbles today.

Dating clay marbles

See Article History Toy, plaything, usually for an infant or child; often an instrument used in a game. Toys, playthings, and games survive from the most remote past and from a great variety of cultures. The ball , kite , and yo-yo are assumed to be the oldest objects specifically designed as toys. Toys vary from the simplest to the most complex things, from the stick selected by a child and imagined to be a hobbyhorse to sophisticated and complex mechanical devices.

Instead, the boys use the same gathered materials to create vehicles, military men, or toy weapons for their own playthings.

Known examples include the following figurines: All Paperweight marbles are very rare. The base glass is typically clear, though colored glass examples occur, yet only extremely rarely. These are harder to find than regular paperweight marbles and in fact are among the most valuable of all hand made marbles. Millefiori Paperweight Marble SLAGS Though slags are traditionally thought of as mostly machine made types, most of the earliest “transitional” marbles, that is to say those made partially by hand and partially by machine, as well as some hand made marbles, are slag-types.

Hand Made Slags Hand made slags can either be those drawn off a cane two pontil examples or formed by the single gather method single pontil examples. The latter should not be confused with Transitional Slags, which also have single pontils.

All about tiles

Well, I was wrong. When Alan says a marble is rare, it is rare, no further discussion. But when he goes on to say the following, you can be sure you may never see a marble like this again:

Of the nine tholos tombs at Mycenae, two, the Treasury of Atreus and the Tomb of Clytemnestra, have splendidly dressed facades with engaged half columns in two tiers and coloured exotic stones; they may have been built early in the 14th century, although arguments are made for a 13th-century construction.

Marbles By Patricia Samford Marbles are one of the most common toys found on North American historic period archaeological sites. This essay will attempt to provide dating and identification tools for ceramic, stone and glass marbles typically found on these sites. This essay and tool is in no way intended to be a comprehensive guide to marbles, since there are many excellent published and online sources, particularly for the types of glass marbles highly sought by collectors.

Table 1 provides a summary of the date ranges and characteristics of the marble types discussed in this essay. Because there is a great deal of source material for dating marbles, site summaries are not provided for this Small Finds category. Date ranges and characteristics of marble types. Germany was the leading manufacturer of marbles throughout the 19th century and into the s Carskadden and Gartley Commercial marble production began in the United States in the late 19th century, but it was not until the invention of the automatic marble making machine in that the industry there really accelerated Randall ; Carskadden and Gartley Ceramic Marbles Ceramic marbles can be divided into three primary categories based on manufacturing material: Earthenware Marbles Unglazed Earthenware — Common brown-bodied earthenware marbles are made from low-fired, unglazed earthenware.

Depending on impurities in the clay, these marbles can range in color from red to brown, tan or gray. A drop of water placed on a brown-bodied earthenware marble will be rapidly absorbed and this action constitutes a simple method for distinguishing it from an unglazed stoneware marble.

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